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It was during the Neolithic period (5,000 BC-2,800 BC) that people began to practice agriculture and livestock farming, produce ceramics and fabricate stone tools. They nonetheless continued to fish, hunt and gather. These humans inhabited caves and also small huts in the open air.

They fabricated tools from stone, wood and bone; examples include sickles, axes, arrow heads, knives and hand mills. They adorned themselves with bracelets, necklaces and earrings made from shell, bone, wild boar tusks, snails and different types of stone. They traded with other peoples by exchanging raw materials (flint, callainite, shells, etc.) and finished products (ceramics, ornaments, etc.).

They buried their dead in boxes or cists, often grouped to form a cemetery or necropolis. The corpse would be laid out adorned with their personal ornaments and accompanied by tools and utensils of everyday life (grave goods). There were successive burials of one or two individuals at a time in each tomb.

Most of the Neolithic materials that you will come across on the museum tour are from burial sites. Examples of these include the necropolis of El Llor (Castellar de la Ribera), the cists of the cemetery of Solsona (Solsona), Altaracs (Olius) and Cal Rajolí (Llobera).

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